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he turn of the 20th century has long been looked at as the low point for Deaf society and culture. The rise of oral-only schooling, the popularity of eugenics, and the death of inspirational community leaders all spelled a perfect storm for the Deaf community of the time. Many believe that the rights and freedoms Deaf people lost are just barely returning today. Susan Birch, however, lays out a different argument in her book, Signs of Resistance: American Deaf Cultural History 1900 to World War II. Birch claims that despite the outward appearance of failure, this time period led to the solidification of a Deaf identity and community, directly leading to the greater rights the Deaf have achieved today. Birch shows this solidification first through the rise of the Oralism vs. Manualism debate, then through the emergence of Deaf clubs and athletic associations, and lastly through the changing legal rights of the Deaf community. Through everything, Birch shows how the community’s positions solidified their cultural heritage, and enabled the Deaf to improve their lives.
Birch starts with the Oralism vs. Manualism debate, an argument about whether Deaf people should speak or sign. The Deaf community was staunchly on the Manualism side, insisting that sign language was good for Deaf people, and did not separate them from mainstream society. Films were made touting the importance of sign and ridiculing those on the other side of the debate, pamphlets were printed to educate hearing people on the wants of the Deaf community, and speeches were made and printed in newspapers across the country. Although Oral-only education swept across America and many teachers of the Deaf who were also Deaf lost their jobs, Sign Language persisted. Children that could not sign in class would sign in their dorms, and often joined a community of signing Deaf once they had left school.
As Eugenics became popular across the country, Deaf people became extremely conscious of their public image. To combat the idea of the Deaf as a disabled community that was weakening the Human Race, Deaf leaders focused on the vast athletic traditions that pervaded the Deaf community as a whole. Deaf athletic associations were established in large numbers all across the country. The images they produced of hearty Americans at the peak of health were circulated everywhere, carefully staged to refute the idea of the Deaf as a genetically inferior race. Confronted with these images, Deaf community leaders felt that it would be difficult to argue that the Deaf should not be allowed to marry each other, or be subject to other Eugenically-minded laws that were being pushed by the general public.
Athletic organizations ultimately led to the formation of social clubs for the Deaf. These places were the hubs of their community, offering the latest news, Deaf-friendly entertainment, and alcoholic beverages to unwind after work. The clubs featured big events on the weekends, such as plays, movie screenings, and even dances. By the end of the 1940’s they were the center of the Deaf world in the cities they occupied, and were also frequently the only deaf-owned establishments in town, creating positive feelings of self-sufficiency and affluence for the entire community. These were small oasis’s where Deaf people were not a linguistic minority, and they did not have to work to understand or make themselves understood. Such gathering places allowed the Deaf a space in which to feel empowered, and where they could organize themselves and work toward common goals.
At the same time social organizations were being formed, so were legal ones. The National Association of the Deaf was founded during the early 1900s, and its mission was to fight for the legal rights of Deaf people all over the country. The NAD had a noble goal, but many in the Deaf community did not support the organization at first. Thrust out of white collar jobs by Oralism, the majority of Deaf gained employment in blue collar industries. Those at the head of the NAD were a minority within a minority; wealthy, well educated men who had been lucky enough to be able to pay for a college education. The rest of the working class Deaf community felt that this elite group could not possibly understand them or the rights they needed. Couple this inherent mistrust with organizational problems, and public opinion of the NAD sank extremely low. Once the group was able to solidify itself it was able to pass many state laws protecting the rights of the Deaf, such as laws prohibiting hearing beggars to pose as Deaf, and laws protecting the rights of Deaf people to marry. Consequently, it became more popular and a fixture of the Deaf community it was working for.
In the rise of the infrastructure of Deaf organization, we can clearly see Birch’s thesis emerge. She argues that, although Deaf people were struggling to hold onto their culture and language, they were also creating places from which they could organize and take on the world for the rights they wished for themselves. Burch’s thesis is well thought out and well executed, and the evidence she gives strongly supports her claims. It is clear that, although Deaf activism did not spread throughout America until the 1980’s, we can see the seeds of it here in the early 1900s. Without these early years of organization, Deaf people may not have achieved the many rights they enjoy today.
Lots has happened since my last post. I’m sorry to not be posting more prolifically, but I’m taking 15 units, working, and dealing with 5 paper weeks most of the time… posting regularly is just not in the cards, as much as I really wish it was. Still, I’m learning amazing things right now, and can’t wait until I have a few seconds to say something longer about them.
Here are a few quick updates: I just received a grant from the History Department – I’m really going to Gallaudet to study in their archives! Everyone in the Gallaudet archives that I e-mailed with was extremely friendly and helpful, and I can’t wait to meet them all in person. They have so much cool stuff that I just hope I have the time to get through it all in the five days that I’ll be there.
I also have access to the films now, thanks to the University of Rochester Language Center. They were also so nice and extremely helpful. Gallaudet has open access versions of the videos on their website, if you’re interested, but they aren’t translated like the ones from Rochester. They are AMAZING, and I would highly recommend watching them.
I’ve been through Deaf writings from the 1800’s, books on Deafness by Alexander Graham Bell (who is a bigger jerk than I thought he was), the films themselves, pamphlets by the NAD, and all sorts of fun things. Still hoping to get through accounts of what film screenings were like and the effort to preserve the films in the 1930’s. It should be eventful, to say the least.
The best part is all the secondary stuff I’ve been reading about how other historians covered the films in the past. Their take on deaf History in general is just amazing. Especially Susan Burch’s Signs of Resistance. That was my favorite so far. I’ll have to post some of the book reviews in the near future, if you’ll forgive the extremely academic tone of them.
That’s it for tonight! I’m hoping to actually start writing my thesis in November (at least parts of it), so hopefully I’ll have a lot to post then.
s you may already have known, I’m a History Major at Chapman University right now. I’m allowed to do my Senior Thesis on any historical topic that I want (best news ever, by the way), so I have chosen to become a Deaf Historian for the next year-and-a-half! I’m studying the National Association of the Deaf films that were made between 1910 and 1920 in an effort to preserve sign language. So far, it’s been fascinating. I haven’t been able to get my hands on all the films yet, but I’m hopeful that I’ll be able to soon. They’re all at the Gallaudet University archives, along with all the correspondence of NAD President George Veditz. It also looks like a school-sponsored trip to the Gallaudet archives might be in the cards for me. Super exciting!
So, as part of my task to get rolling on this subject, I had to create an essay on how others have studied that topic in the past. It’s ten pages long, and heavily footnoted (Yikes!). I’ve included the intro down below, because I think it really gives a lot of info on the background of the films that’s fun, and also super interesting. I always say to take my stuff with a grain of salt, because it’s not particularly well-researched, but you can take this one as well-researched fact. I’ll paste the footnotes at the bottom. I’ll also post the whole essay at some point, but I want to make it easy for those who don’t want to wade through a ten page essay on historic theory to skip. :) Here it is!
George Veditz and the National Association for the Deaf Films
In 1880 in Milan, Italy, the International Congress on Education for the Deaf voted to ban the use of sign language in Deaf schools.  Spurred by the rhetoric of Alexander Graham Bell, known to most Americans as the inventor of the telephone, American Deaf schools flocked to comply with the Milan Conference’s decision. In return, a movement was spawned by Deaf community leaders advocating sign language instruction, fiercely hanging onto the culture they had fought so hard to create. Still, it looked as if the Deaf were losing this fight as Alexander Graham Bell, a follower of eugenics, tried to convince everyone that the Deaf were forming their own separate race. Even those who didn’t subscribe to eugenics “demanded the elimination of sign language, believing that it undermined English language acquisition and promoted deaf separatism.”  In the end, deaf people would have to live in a hearing world, they argued, and they should have the skills to deal with that fact. Science has since proved what Deaf people knew all along, that this theory does not work in practicality. Keeping sign language away from deaf people keeps all language away from deaf people, and can be harmful to cognitive development. Still, it looked as if sign might become extinct in the near future.
This is the climate in which the National Association of the Deaf, under President George Veditz, decided to make several films for the preservation of Sign Language. “The N.A.D… has collected a fund of $5,000, called the Moving Picture Fund.” Veditz wrote, “…I am sorry that it is not $20,000.” With such a limited budget, Veditz and the NAD Board had to decide carefully which signers they would film and what subjects they would cover. Ultimately, the films they chose to make tended to center on Deaf history, American patriotism, and religion. Eighteen films were made in all, from the years 1913-1920, but only fourteen of these survived to the modern age. The loss of 4 films was due in large part to their heavy use by the Deaf community, and the poorly trained film operators responsible for winding the machines.
The films were made by pointing a static camera at the signers and having them lecture to it. Often, small amounts of scenery such as vases and curtains were placed in the background for visual effect. Because of the black and white picture and the poor resolution of the film, signers had to make sure they produced their signs large and signed slowly so everyone could see them. After a few mistakes, most notably the film showing Edward Minter Gallaudet’s lecture – a retelling of Lorna Doone – filmmakers were also careful to place the lecturers on plain, dark backgrounds so their hands would show up easily. These films compared favorably with other films of the time in technical skill and appearance.
Once the films were completed, they were circulated throughout the United States to local Deaf Clubs. These clubs would often couple the film screening with live entertainment, making each screening a huge event in the local Deaf community. Large groups of signers would congregate in the hall downtown to see the films. Sometimes, requests were made for the NAD to send transcripts of the films that could be read for any hearing visitors in the audience. Although Veditz’s film, featuring his impassioned plea for sign language is the best known today, it was E.M. Gallaudet’s film that was most requested when the films were released, despite the difficult background of his film. This was probably due to the popularity of E.M. Gallaudet’s father, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. T.H. Gallaudet had been instrumental in forming the first school for the Deaf, in Hartford, Connecticut.
Although the films had a major impact on the Deaf community when they were first produced, scholarship on them has been spotty at best. Many books cover the topic, but devote no more than a few pages to the exploration of the history of these films. Some give no more than a brief mention to Veditz’s films as being the precursor to modern Sign Language recording. This paper attempts to explore in greater detail not only the motives behind George Veditz’s creation of these films, and how these films influenced deaf culture as a whole, but also why the topic hasn’t been better covered by Deaf Historians.
That’s it for now. I hope you enjoyed! :) Also, a link to Veditz’s film: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XITbj3NTLUQ
 The deaf community uses the term “Deaf” with a capital D to denote the segment of deaf people who consider themselves culturally deaf. This separates them from other groups such as the elderly, who may experience total hearing loss, but hardly identify with the Deaf as a community. I feel it is important to make this designation in the language Deaf people use about themselves, and have continued this practice throughout the paper.
 Daniel Eagan, America’s Film Legacy, (The Continuum Publishing Group: New York, 2012), Page 11
 Signs of Resistance, Page 3
 Oliver Sacks, Seeing Voices: A Journey Into the World of the Deaf, (University of California Press: Berkley, 1990), Page 54
 Eagan, America’s Film Legacy, Page 11
 Susan Burch, Signs of Resistance: American Deaf Cultural History 1900-WWII, (New York University Press: New York, 2002), Page 58
 Carol Padden and Tom Humphries, Inside Deaf Culture, (Harvard University Press: Massachusetts, 2005), Page 58
 Padden and Humphries, Inside Deaf Culture, Page 63
 Padden and Humphries, inside Deaf Culture, (Harvard University Press: Massachusetts, 2005), Page 63
am at the point in my signing that when I meet a Deaf person, they usually tell me that my sign is quite good. I’m not really sure if that means my sign is actually good, or whether or not it only exceeds expectations, but I’ll take whatever I can get. I realized at a party the other day when I was signing with a friend, that your ability to understand Deaf people does not actually go up with your signing ability. The reason for this is that when your sign speeds up and gets better, so does the Deaf person who you’re talking to.
Remember in ASL 1 when you could only understand about every other word that was being signed to you? The Deaf person was undoubtedly going very slowly and taking a lot of time to make sure you understand. As your sign got better, so did the speed at which others communicated with you. I’m at the point now where I get rapid-fire sign being thrown at me in non-English structure and I have to grasp for anything that will anchor me into the conversation. I’ve known ASL for three years now, feel that attaining fluency is right around the corner, and I can still only understand about every other word that’s being said to me.
I’m sure that as I begin to recognize non-English structure, I’ll become more comfortable in these conversations. Also, it isn’t like I don’t feel that my skills are improving. My husband has recently learned to sign, and is discovering the wonderful world of ASL Youtube videos (as I did). He’ll make me come in and interpret things for him if he doesn’t understand and thinks it’s probably funny, and I’m very able to! I also consider it a very good omen that my sign is considered good enough by my Deaf friends to leave the PSE at home (that’s Pigeon Signed English).
I had this mythos in my head that when I had passed ASL 4, I would be amazing and able to communicate flawlessly with everyone. It turns out, there’s still a lot of work between ASL 4 and understanding every single word a person is saying to you, full speed ahead. I just thought you’d like to know.
It’s true, I just opened my Etsy site: http://www.etsy.com/shop/ILYPaperProducts featuring cards with the ASL art on them. It’s not much yet, but I’m insanely proud of it and I thought I’d share. :)
I just attended a whole day of Orientation events at Chapman University. I was thrilled to find that they had ASL interpreters for all the large group events with podium speakers! For the 1 1/2 hour long convocation ceremony, they even had a team! First of all, props to Chapman for understanding and paying for the services Deaf people need. That being said, I think they could improve their service even more.
My husband works at Chapman University, which means that I get to meet all sorts of behind-the-scene University people that most students don’t. At a wedding a while ago, I met the woman who was in charge of booking the interpreters for special events at Chapman. She told me that they were looking to improve the services they offered. I believe I told them about RID certification and how that was a really good way to know you have an amazing interpreter.
The interpreters yesterday were a mixed bag. I think they probably came from an agency, but really I’m just guessing. The first group I watched was a team of two women. The first woman was absolutely amazing and gave an equal-access interpretation. She was funny when the speaker was funny, extremely animated, and caught almost every bit of information being thrown out by the speaker. The second gal was not as good. To be fair, she was interpreting for a man using lots of folksy language and English idioms, but I felt that she didn’t match the speaker very well and she left out a lot of non-essential information.
The team did well, though. I hardly noticed when they switched between each other and they even kept interpreting through the non-captioned video that was shown. I was thoroughly impressed.
That night, I went to a talk on the History and Traditions of Chapman University. It was such a cool and funny class. I was sitting in a really bad place to watch the interpreter (there were very tall people all around me and she was standing on the floor). While I can’t really comment on the rest of the interpreting job she was doing, she didn’t interpret through the non-captioned movie, which I didn’t appreciate.
The two bits of advice I would have to Chapman about using interpreters in the future would be to ask the agency for people who are RID certified or have been interpreting more than five years. They do so much to make their students feel welcome, and I really think it would be such a relief for Deaf students to see that they were getting equal access to information being presented. It would make Deaf parents feel that they were leaving their student in the hands of someone who not only cares, but is willing to go above and beyond to meet the needs of their child.
The second piece of advice would be to put those interpreters on a podium, please!! I’d like to be able to see them no matter where I was sitting, and a little elevation will do just that.
Chapman University is a class act. For people who know next to nothing about interpreters or interpreting, they did really well! I was impressed by everything I saw yesterday, not just the interpreters. Watching their interpreters made me feel like they really cared, though. They really wanted everyone to have a good experience at orientation, not just the “normal” hearing freshmen. I think I’m going to like attending here!
have a very exciting announcement! At least, I’m very excited about it. I have officially dropped out of Mt. San Antonio College. With budget cut after budget cut, I just can’t get classes for the life of me. I’m now 2 years behind in a 3 year program (of which I had taken the first year before I started at Mt. SAC), and I’m afraid of how much longer it will take me to get through if I stay with the current plan.
The new plan is to transfer to Golden West College. The same price as Mt. SAC with a good overall reputation, It looks like I’ll be able to get into all the classes I need fairly easily (!!!). It also looks like their program is a little less strict than the Mt. SAC program, but that doesn’t bother me at all. I’m ready to get my hands in the air, and I’ve decided that I just can’t wait as long as Mt. SAC expects me to, crossing my fingers every year that I get into the class I need this time.
On the other front, I start attending Chapman University for my BA this year. I love telling people I’m a History major and then, when they ask me what I plan to do with that degree, tell them “ASL Interpreter”. I get many odd looks, and it’s lots of fun. Of course, then I have to explain to them that I need a BA in anything to get certified, I’ve always liked History, and I figure why not get a degree in it. Especially when any degree is helpful.
Chapman so far has been a dream come true. Their registration proccess and welcoming attitude have been so amazing that it makes me want to cry. I’ve never felt so wanted by an institution in all my life, and after all the denials and struggles to register at community college, it’s been amazing to feel liked. I’ve looked carefully at making a custom minor for myself there, in Deaf Studies. All I’m waiting for is to submit my plan to the accademic council. Here’s the proposal I’m sending them: I hope it works!!! I’ll keep you posted on what happens with this, and on any really cool stuff I learn along the way.
To whom it may concern:
I am interested in pursuing a custom minor in Deaf Studies from Chapman University. I believe that with my course work from Mt. San Antonio College, supplemented by some of the upper-division course work from Chapman, I will be able to achieve a relevant degree in this subject from your university. These are the classes I propose to use toward that minor:
Lower Division: (10 units total)
American Sign Language 4 – 4 units. This class has been taken through Mt. San Antonio College. The course description is as follows: 72 hours lecture. Emphasis on expressive conversational skills in American Sign Language along with continued focus on grammatical and cultural features. CSU/UC transferable.
American Deaf Culture – 3 units. This class has been taken through Mt. San Antonio College. The course description is as follows: 72 hours lecture. American Deaf cultural norms, values, mores, and institutions. CSU transferable.
American Sign Language Structure – 3 units. This class has been taken through Mt. San Antonio College. The course description is as follows: 54 hours lecture. Linguistic Study of American Sign Language, including phonology, morphology, and syntax. Sociolinguistic issues will also be discussed. CSU/UC transferable.
Upper Division: (12 units total) – These classes would be taken at Chapman University. After the proposed class, I have included a description as to how I think each class will contribute to my understanding of Deafness. There are more than twelve units worth of classes listed, and I thought that the GE committee and myself could pick twelve units from this list so as to come up with the strongest combination of classes in this minor.
COM 480, Nonverbal Communication – 3 units. While American Sign Language is the preferred communication system used throughout the American Deaf community, some Deaf people have had limited exposure to ASL or have not learned to use it at all. On the other end of the spectrum are Deaf people who have not had much exposure to English and cannot use language alone to communicate with the hearing world around them. I believe that this class will help me better understand these groups of people and how they communicate with the world through methods other than language.
IES 413, Current Issues in Disability Studies and Services – 3 units. Deaf people don’t consider themselves disabled, yet use and benefit from many of the services available to disabled groups. By studying these services and issues, and also the viewpoint of non-disabled groups toward the disabled, I will have a better understanding of the options available for Deaf people living in America and how being grouped with the disabled effects their lives both positively and negatively.
Independent Study – 3 units. I propose concentrate on one of two topics. The first is to study George Veditz and the National Association of the Deaf’s quest to preserve American Sign Language for future generations during the early 1900’s through the use of film. As part of this topic, I would also like to study similar efforts today to preserve ASL on film. A second possibility would be to study Deaf art and literature and how it depicts and shapes the Deaf world view.
Internship – 3 units. I would like to intern with either the Greater Los Angeles Agency on Deafness (GLAD), or Deaf West Theater. These are both premiere Deaf-run institutions in Southern California and I believe that interning at one of these places will give me practical insight into Deaf Culture and the Deaf way of life that cannot be achieved through classes alone. Both groups accept interns frequently.
This equals 22 units, one more than the 21 unit minimum required to qualify for a minor per the 2011-2012 Academic Catalogue. I have also looked carefully at the other language-based minors at Chapman and believe that these selections are in keeping with the theme of those programs.
In addition to this information, I would also like to present the requirements to several Deaf Studies minors from various colleges across America. I believe they will show you that the course of study above is consistent with established programs across the nation.
Gallaudet University, the premier institute for the Deaf, includes:
- American Sign Language courses
- Deaf Culture
- American Sign Language Structure
- Disability Studies
- Introduction to Deaf View/Image Art
Rochester Institute of Technology, an institution allied with the National Technical Institute for the Deaf:
- American Sign Language courses
- Deaf Culture in America
- Linguistics of American Sign Language
- Special Topics: Deaf Art and Cinema
- Oppression in the Lives of Deaf People
University of Southern Maine includes:
- American Sign Language courses
- Introduction to the Deaf World (Deaf Culture)
- ASL Linguistics
- Research Internship
- Deaf Art, Film, and Theater
Boston University includes:
- American Sign Language courses
- History and Culture of the Deaf
- American Sign Language Structure
- Field Experience
- Deaf Literature and ASL Folklore
Thank you so much for your consideration in allowing me to take this minor. Please let me know if there’s anything else I can do to make this decision easier.
Casey E. Hamilton
At Disneyland where I work, they allow you to have a n extra little pin at the bottom of your name tag if you speak a language other than English. I think the idea is that people from all over the world come to Disneyland and should you need extra assistance talking to anyone, you can just pull your friend aside who has a “Mandarin” name tag on and they can help you (or whatever language you need). They’re really stringent about who they let have a pin. You have to go and do a special test with a native speaker of that language. If you pass the test, they put our name on a list, and only people with their name on the list are allowed to have the pin.
They offer an ASL name tag, but I’ve been holding off on getting one until I felt I knew enough sign to really help someone. Besides, the guy I would be testing with is a CODA, interpreted for Hundreds of years at Disney World (OK, I’m exaggerating), and is now head of disability services for the whole park… very nerve-wracking. I’m starting interpreting classes now, though. I felt like this was something I should certainly be able to pass. I also felt like this is just the first in a series of tests that I’m going to be taking in the next few years, so I better get used to it.
Really, it ended up being super easy and a lot of fun. The guy who tested me was extremely friendly and knowledgeable. As soon as he started explaining what would happen, I knew I would pass no problem. The test consisted of three parts: Part one, he would give me a vocabulary work and I would sign it back to him. Part two, he would sign a work or small phrase and I would tell him what he said. Part 3 was a short conversation. I don’t think I’ve taken a test so easy since ASL 1. He was impressed that I knew the sign for “tickets” (super-easy!!!) and the hardest thing he signed to me was that he lost his 7-year-old daughter and explained to me what she was wearing. The conversation part consisted of the information you give to every deaf person you meet at any Deaf Event. When the test was over, he told me that he thought it was the quickest he’s ever given, as he just skipped over the easy stuff. Let me tell you, I felt great!!
The best part about the meeting, though, was all the information he gave me on Deaf Services at Disneyland. He was saying that people will see my pin and expect me to be an expert, so he’d give me all the information he could. Such cool stuff!! They have a little handheld Closed Captioning device that’s radio-tuned to the ride, so people on the ride can read what the overhead voice is saying in places like the haunted mansion. They also offer interpreted performances four days a week, 2 days at California Adventure, and 2 days at Disneyland. I have to say, I kinda want to ask for one of those Closed Captioning devices the next time I’m in the park. It would be fun to see how accurate they are and how easy they are to read and use while riding the ride. I’ll definitely have to do that and report back.
The other thing we discussed that I thought was interesting is when I’m allowed to interpret and when I’m not. It’s all stuff we’ve covered in classes I’ve taken too, but I thought it was great that he’s concerned about Deaf people having qualified interpreters when they need them. All in all, I was very impressed with my Disney Deaf experience. I can’t wait to try out their stuff for myself. And in the mean time, I’ll be waiting for my pin to arrive!!
I started my first interpreting class two weeks ago, and boy are we talking about some interesting things!! The name of the class is “Principles of Interpreting” and, as my teacher says, it’s everything about interpreting that doesn’t have to do with ASL. We’ve been dealing with dress codes, on the job stress, talking about types of interpreting (who knew there were so many?!), and all sorts of other things.
The topic I’m finding most pertinent right now is on the job stress. A few weeks ago, I was in a work-type situation where there were a mixed group of Deaf and Hearing folks. A very Audist gentleman was being a total A$$H*!@ to the Deaf folks, much more so than to any of the hearing. He would spontaneously yell and reprimand people publicly. I even once heard him say “I don’t care about Deaf Culture, I just want you to do it my way.” I was not the interpreter in this situation (thank God!!) but boy was I stressed!! I think the worst thing for me was that this gentleman came into the situation spouting all the right stuff about Deaf Culture and Deaf rights. It wasn’t that he didn’t know better. it was just that, when push came to shove, he didn’t care.I was so stressed one night that – I’ll admit it – I went home and cried.
In class, we’ve been talking about worse situations than the one I experienced, such as being the operator for a 911 VRS call, or having to tell someone in a hospital that their mother just died. I’ve heard all this can wear on an interpreter until the experience what’s called Vicarious Trauma. Don’t worry, I’m not re-thinking my desire to become an interpreter, I’m just thinking about all the tools I’ll need to handle this.
I have never handled stress very well. My usual master plan is to go home and have a good cry, which frankly frightens my husband. Crying is not a good strategy for stress management, at least not for me. But what other tools can I use? I’ll be pondering that as I take the rest of this course. Along with everything else I’m learning.